Monday, January 3, 2011

Sahidic Coptic Vocabulary Cards

Vocabulary is one of the most important aspects of learning a new language. Learning grammar is necessary, but one cannot understand the grammar if one cannot understand the words. Having to look up every other word is time consuming and tiresome.

Resources for learning Sahidic Coptic are somewhat scant. Available Sahidic Coptic grammars are geared towards University study, where there is a support structure. However, self students are left to themselves.

I have compiled Sahidic Coptic vocabulary cards. They are based on Bruce Metzger's "List of Words Occuring Frequently in the Coptic New Testament, Sahidic Dialect." I have revised the definitions, mainly by comparing the definitions found in Bentley Layton's "Coptic in 20 Lessons."

I use the digital flashcard web app found at You can use iFlipr on your computer, or on an iPhone if you have one. I think the iPhone app is better than the web based one. If you create an account on iFlipr, you can search for my flashcards by typing "Sahidic Metzger." To date, my Sahidic flashcards are the only ones found on

However, I realize that not all may wish to use There are other flashcard apps, or one may just wish to write out the flashcards on index cards. For that reason I am presenting all of the flashcards here. They are set in comma seperated values, so that they may be imported into flashcard programs. Personally, I prefer to have the Coptic word on the definition side in addition to the English definition, so each line has the Coptic word twice.

Those who are learning Coptic for the purpose of studying the Sahidic NT should already have a knowledge of Koine Greek. For that reason, I am only presenting native Coptic words.

Here are all Coptic words that occur over 75 times in the Sahidic Coptic New Testament. I have a short term project of creating flashcards for all words occurring over 25 times in the NT. I will add those later. There are 396 Coptic words occurring over 25 times in the Sahidic NT. This compares to 525 Greek words occurring over 25 times in the Greek NT.

Note: I have grouped the flashcards into units of about 20 words each. These were created with a beta version of my Coptic keyboard, so some of the characters are sub-optimal.

Sahidic words used over 1000 times
ΑΝ, "ΑΝ not, negative particle"
ΑΥѠ, "ΑΥѠ and"
ΒΟλ, "ΒΟλ outside"
"Є-, ЄΡΟ=", "Є-, ЄΡΟ= to, toward, for"
ЄΒΟλ, "ЄΒΟλ out, away"
ЄΙΡЄ, "ЄΙΡЄ to make, do"
ΜΝ-, "ΜΝ- with, and"
Ν-, "Ν- with, by; to, for"
"Ν, ΜΜΟ=", "Ν, ΜΜΟ= of, genitival particle; also indicates object of verb"
ΝΑ=, "ΝΑ= conjugative, base conjunctive"
"ΝΟΥΤЄ, Π-", "ΝΟΥΤЄ, Π- god, divine being, God (always with def. article) (masc)"
ΝϬΙ, "ΝϬΙ namely (postponed subject marker)"
"Π(Є)-, Τ(Є)-, Ν(Є)-", "Π(Є)-, Τ(Є)-, Ν(Є)- the (definite article)"
"ΠΑΙ, ΤΑΙ, ΝΑΙ", "ΠΑΙ, ΤΑΙ, ΝΑΙ this (definite demonstrative pronoun)"
Ϯ, "Ϯ to give"
ϢѠΠЄ, "ϢѠΠЄ to become, happen"
ϩΝ, "ϩΝ in, at, on, by"
"ϩΡΑΙ, ЄϩΡΑΙ", "ϩΡΑΙ, ЄϩΡΑΙ up, down; upward, downward"
ϪЄ, "ϪЄ that, since, because"
ϪѠ, "ϪѠ to say, speak"

Sahidic words used 300-1000 times - part 1
ΒѠΚ, "ΒѠΚ to go, depart"
ЄΙ, "ЄΙ to come, go"
"ЄϪΝ-, ЄϪѠ=", "ЄϪΝ-, ЄϪѠ= upon, over, for, to"
ΚѠ, "ΚѠ to place, set, permit"
"ΜΑΥ, ΜΜΑΥ", "ΜΑΥ, ΜΜΑΥ there"
ΝΑΥ, "ΝΑΥ to look, see"
ΝΙΜ, "ΝΙΜ each, every, all"
ΝϩΗΤ=, "ΝϩΗΤ= in, from"
"ΠЄϪЄ-, ΠЄϪΑ=", "ΠЄϪЄ-, ΠЄϪΑ= to say"
ΡѠΜЄ, "ΡѠΜЄ human being, person, man (masc)"
ΤΗΡ=, "ΤΗΡ= all, whole, every"
ϢΗΡЄ, "ϢΗΡЄ son, child (masc)"
"ϩΑ-, ϩΑΡΟ=", "ϩΑ-, ϩΑΡΟ= under, from, for, concerning"
"ϩΙΤΝ-, ϩΙΤΟΟΤ=", "ϩΙΤΝ, ϩΙΤΟΟΤ= through, by, from"
ϪΙ, "ϪΙ to take, receive"
ϪΟЄΙС, "ϪΟЄΙС lord, master, owner, Lord (masc)"
-ϬЄ, "-ϬЄ then, therefore"
ЄΤΒЄ-, "ЄΤΒЄ- because of, about, concerning"
"ЄΙѠΤ, ЄΙΟΤЄ (pl)", "ЄΙѠΤ, ЄΙΟΤЄ (pl) father (masc)"
ΚЄ-, "ΚЄ- other, another, even, also"
λΑΑΥ, "λΑΑΥ anyone, anything; negative: no one, nothing"
ΜΑ, "ΜΑ place (masc)"
ΜΟΥ, "ΜΟΥ to die"

Sahidic words used 300-1000 times - part 2
ΝΗΥ, "ΝΗΥ to go (Qual.)"
ΝϴЄ, "ΝϴЄ as, just as, in like manner"
ΝΟΥϪЄ, "ΝΟΥϪЄ to throw, cast"
ΝΟϬ, "ΝΟϬ great, large"
ΟΝ, "ΟΝ again, also, still"
"ΠЄ, ΤЄ, ΝЄ", "ΠЄ, ΤЄ, ΝЄ he (is), she (is), they (are)"
"ΠЄ, ΠΗΥЄ (pl)", "ΠЄ, ΠΗΥЄ (pl) heaven, sky (fem)"
"СΟΝ, СΝΗΥ (pl)", "СΟΝ, СΝΗΥ (pl) brother (masc)"
СѠΤΜ, "СѠΤΜ to hear, listen to"
СΟΟΥΝ, "СΟΟΥΝ to know"
ΟΥ, "ΟΥ what? who?"
ΟΥΑΑΒ, "ΟΥΑΑΒ pure, holy (Qual.)"
ΟΥѠϢ, "ΟΥѠϢ to want, desire, wish, love"
"ϢΑ, ϢΑΡΟ=", "ϢΑ-, ϢΑΡΟ= to, toward"
ϢΑϪЄ, "ϢΑϪЄ word, saying (masc)"
"ϩΙ, ϩΙѠѠ=", "ϩΙ, ϩΙѠѠ= on, at, and"
ϩѠѠ=, "ϩѠѠ= self, also, too"
"ϩѠΒ, ϩΒΗΥЄ (pl)", "ϩѠΒ,  ϩΒΗΥЄ (pl) thing, work, matter, deed (masc)"
ϩΟΟΥ, "ϩΟΟΥ day (masc)"
ϪЄΚΑС, "ϪЄΚΑС in order that, so that"
ϬΟΜ, "ϬΟΜ power, strength (fem)"

Sahidic words used 200-299 times - part 1
ЄСΗΤ, "ЄСΗΤ bottom, ground (masc)"
ЄΟΟΥ, "ЄΟΟΥ honor, glory (masc)"
ЄϢϪЄ, "ЄϢϪЄ if, then, indeed, since"
ЄϩΟΥΝ Є-, "ЄϩΟΥΝ Є- to, into, toward"
"ΗΙ, ΗЄΙ", "ΗΙ, ΗЄΙ house (masc)"
ΚΑϩ, "ΚΑϩ earth, ground (masc)"
"ΜΜΝ-, ΜΝ-", "ΜΜΝ-, ΜΝ- there is not, are not; no one"
ΜΟΥΤЄ, "ΜΟΥΤЄ to speak, call"
ΜΗΗϢЄ, "ΜΗΗϢЄ  crowd, mulititude (masc)"
ΜΟΟϢЄ, "ΜΟΟϢЄ to walk, go"
ΝΟΒЄ, "ΝΟΒЄ sin (masc)"
"ΝΤЄ-, ΝΤΑ=", "ΝΤЄ-, ΝΤΑ= of, genitival particle"
ΡΑΝ, "ΡΑΝ name (masc)"
СϩΑΙ, "СϩΑΙ to write"
"СϩΙΜЄ, ϩΙΟΜЄ (pl)", "СϩΙΜЄ, ϩΙΟΜЄ (pl) woman, wife (fem)"
ΤЄΝΟΥ, "ΤЄΝΟΥ now (lit. 'the being')"

Sahidic words used 200-299 times - part 2
ΤѠΟΥΝ, "ΤѠΟΥΝ to arise, get up, raise"
ΟΥΑ, "ΟΥΑ one"
ΟΥѠΜ, "ΟΥѠΜ to eat"
ΟΥΝ-, "ΟΥΝ- there is, are"
ΟΥΟΝ, "ΟΥΟΝ someone, something, anyone"
ΟΥѠΝϩ, "ΟΥѠΝϩ to show, manifest, appear"
ΟΥΟЄΙϢ, "ΟΥΟЄΙϢ time, occasion (masc)"
ΟΥѠϢΒ, "ΟΥѠϢΒ to answer"
ΟΥѠϩ, "ΟΥѠϩ to put, set, place"
ѠΝϩ, "ѠΝϩ to live; life (masc)"
ϢΟΡΠ, "ϢΟΡΠ first, earliest"
ϢΑϪЄ, "ϢΑϪЄ to speak, say"
ϤΙ, "ϤΙ to bear, carry, take, lift up"
ϩЄ, "ϩЄ manner, way; thus, as"
ϩΗΤ, "ϩΗΤ heart, mind (masc)"
ϪѠΚ, "ϪѠΚ to fill, fulfill, complete, finish"

Sahidic words used 100-199 times - part 1
ΑϩЄΡΑΤ=, "ΑϩЄΡΑΤ= to stand"
ЄΝЄϩ, "ЄΝЄϩ age; eternal, forever (masc)"
-ЄΡΗΥ, "-ЄΡΗΥ each other, one another"
ЄΤΒΗΗΤ=, "ЄΤΒΗΗΤ=because of, concerning, about"
ЄΙΜЄ, "ЄΙΜЄ to know, understand"
ЄΙΝЄ, "ЄΙΝЄ to bring, bear"
ЄΙС- "ЄΙС- to behold; behold!"
ΚѠΤЄ, "ΚѠΤЄ to go around, turn, return, surround"
ΜЄ, "ΜЄ truth (fem); (or to love)"
ΜЄ, "ΜЄ to love; (or truth (fem))"
ΜΟΥ, "ΜΟΥ death, dead (masc)"
ΜΑΥΑΑ=, "ΜΑΥΑΑ= alone, single"
ΜЄЄΥЄ, "ΜЄЄΥЄ thought, mind (masc); (or to think, believe)"
"ΜΝΝСΑ-, ΜΝΝСѠ=", "ΜΝΝСΑ-, ΜΝΝСѠ= after"
"ΜΝΤЄ-, ΜΝΤЄ-", "ΜΝΤЄ-, ΜΝΤЄ- to have not"
"ΜΝΤЄΡΟ, ΜΝΤΡΡΟ, ΜΝΤΡΡѠΟΥ (pl)", "ΜΝΤЄΡΟ, ΜΝΤΡΡΟ, ΜΝΤΡΡѠΟΥ (pl) kingdom, reign (fem)"
ΜΝΤΡЄ, "ΜΝΤΡЄ witness, testimony (masc)"
ΜΤΟ, "ΜΤΟ before, in front of (masc)"
ΜΟΟΥΤ, "ΜΟΟΥΤ dead (masc)"
ΜΟΥΟΥΤ, "ΜΟΥΟΥΤ to kill"

Sahidic words used 100-199 times - part 2
ΝΙΜ, "ΝΙΜ who?"
ΝΑΝΟΥ=, "ΝΑΝΟΥ= good"
"ΝΤΝ-, ΝΤΟΟΤ=", "ΝΤΝ-, ΝΤΟΟΤ= by, from"
ΝΤЄΥΝΟΥ, "ΝΤЄΥΝΟΥ immediately (lit. in the now)"
ΝϩΟΥΟ, "ΝϩΟΥΟ more, greatly, very"
ΟЄΙΚ, "ΟЄΙΚ bread (masc)"
ΠѠΤ, "ΠѠΤ to run, flee, go"
"ΡΟ, ΡѠ=", "ΡΟ, ΡѠ= mouth, door (masc)"
ΡΠЄ, "ΡΠЄ temple (masc)"
"ΡΡΟ, ΡΡѠΟΥ (pl)", "ΡΡΟ, ΡΡѠΟΥ (pl) king (masc)"
ΡΑϢЄ, "ΡΑϢЄ to rejoice; joy (masc)"
"СѠΒ, СΒΟΟΥЄ (pl)", "СѠΒ, СΒΟΟΥЄ (pl) doctrine, teaching"
СΜΗ, "СΜΗ voice (fem)"
СΝΑΥ, "СΝΑΥ two"
"СΟΠ, СΠ, СѠѠΠ", "СΟΠ, СΠ, СѠѠΠ occasion, time (masc)"
СѠΟΥϩ, "СѠΟΥϩ to gather, assemble"
"ΤΑΟΥΟ, ΤΑΥΟ", "ΤΑΟΥΟ, ΤΑΥΟ to send, produce, proclaim"
ΤΑϪΡΟ, "ΤΑϪΡΟ to make strong, firm"
ΟΥΟЄΙΝ, "ΟΥΟЄΙΝ light (masc)"
ΟΥѠΤ, "ΟΥѠΤ single, alone, one"

Sahidic words used 100-199 times - part 3
ΟΥϪΑΙ, "ΟΥϪΑΙ to be whole, safe; salvation"
ϢΙΝЄ, "ϢΙΝЄ to seek, ask"
ϢѠΠ, "ϢѠΠ to receive, accept, take, buy, suffer"
ϩЄ, "ϩЄ to fall"
"ϩЄ Є-", "ϩЄ Є- to find"
"ϩΙΗ, ϩΙΟΟΥЄ (pl)", "ϩΙΗ ϩΙΟΟΥЄ (pl) road, way, path (fem)"
ϩΟЄΙΝЄ, "ϩΟЄΙΝЄ some, certain"
ϩΜΟΟС, "ϩΜΟΟС to sit, dwell, marry"
ϩΜΟΤ, "ϩΜΟΤ graciousness, favor, grace (masc)"
ϩΜΗΑλ, "ϩΜΗΑλ slave, servant (masc)"
ϩΑΡЄϩ, "ϩΑΡЄϩ to be careful, keep, guard"
ϩΟΤЄ, "ϩΟΤЄ to fear; fear (fem)"
ϩΑϩ, "ϩΑϩ many, much"
"ϩΙϪΝ-, ϩΙϪѠ=", "ϩΙϪΝ-, ϩΙϪѠ= on, upon, over"
ϪΙΝ-, "ϪΙΝ- from, since"
ϪΠΟ, "ϪΠΟ to give birth to, father"
ϪΟΟΥ, "ϪΟΟΥ to send"
ϬѠ, "ϬѠ to continue, remain, stop"
ϬѠϢΤ, "ϬѠϢΤ to look, watch"
ϬΙϪ, "ϬΙϪ hand (fem)"

Sahidic words used 76-99 times - part 1
ΑΜΑϩΤЄ, "ΑΜΑϩΤЄ to seize, grasp, control"
ΒΑλ, "ΒΑλ eye (masc)"
ΒѠλ, "ΒѠλ to loosen, undo"
ЄΙЄ, "ЄΙЄ then"
ΚΟΥΙ, "ΚΟΥΙ small, few"
ΜΑЄΙΝ, "ΜΑЄΙΝ sign, wonder (masc)"
ΜΑΑΥ, "ΜΑΑΥ mother (fem)"
"ΜΟΟΥ, ΜΟΥЄΙΟΟΥЄ (pl)", "ΜΟΟΥ, ΜΟΥЄΙΟΟΥЄ (pl) water (masc)"
ΜЄЄΥЄ, "ΜЄЄΥЄ to think, believe"
ΜΟΥΡ, "ΜΟΥΡ to bind, gird, tie"
ΜΟΥϩ, "ΜΟΥϩ to fill, be filled, complete"
"ΝΑϢЄ-, ΜΑϢѠ=", "ΝΑϢЄ-, ΝΑϢѠ= many, great, numerous"
"ΝΑϩΡΝ-, ΝΑϩΡΑ=", "ΝΑϩΡΝ-, ΝΑϩΡΑ= in the presence of, before"
ΠѠ=, "ΠѠ= his, possessive pronoun"
ΠΟΥΑ, "ΠΟΥΑ each one"
ΠѠϢ, "ΠѠϢ to divide, share, split"
СѠ, "СѠ to drink"
"СΟΒΤЄ, СΟϤΤЄ", "СΟΒΤЄ, СΟϤΤЄ to be ready, prepare"
СΝΟϤ, "СΝΟϤ blood (masc)"
СΑϢϤ, "СΑϢϤ seven"
ΤΒΒΟ, "ΤΒΒΟ to cleanse, purify"
ΤΑЄΙΟ, "ΤΑЄΙΟ honor"

Sahidic words used 76-99 times - part 2
ΤΑΚΟ, "ΤΑΚΟ to destroy, perish"
ΤΑλΟ, "ΤΑλΟ to lift up, offer up, go up"
ΤΑΜΟ, "ΤΑΜΟ to tell, inform"
ΤΝΝΟΟΥ, "ΤΝΝΟΟΥ to send"
Ϯ-ΟΥΟЄΙ, "Ϯ-ΟΥΟЄΙ to go forward, approach"
ΤΟΥΝΟС, "ΤΟΥΝΟС to wake, raise, set up"
ΤΑϢЄΟЄΙϢ, "ΤΑϢЄΟЄΙϢ to proclaim, preach"
ΤѠϩΜ, "ΤѠϩΜ to call, invite"
ΟΥѠΝ, "ΟΥѠΝ to open, be open"
ΟΥЄΡΗΤЄ, "ΟΥЄΡΗΤЄ foot (fem)"
ѠΝЄ, "ѠΝЄ stone (masc)"
ϢλΗλ, "ϢλΗλ to pray"
ϢΗΜ, "ϢΗΜ young, small, little"
ϢΟΜΝΤ, "ϢΟΜΝΤ three"
ϢΠΗΡЄ, "ϢΠΗΡЄ wonder, amazement (fem)"
"ϢϢЄ, ϢЄ", "ϢϢЄ, ϢЄ it is fitting, necessary"
"ϩΗ, ϩΗΤ=", "ϩΗ, ϩΗΤ= front, beginning (fem)"
ϩѠΝ, "ϩѠΝ to approach, draw near"
"ϩΟΥΟ, ЄΠЄϩΟΥΟ", "ϩΟΥΟ, ЄΠЄϩΟΥΟ great, greatly, very (masc)"
"ϪΟΙ, ЄϪΗΥ (pl)", "ϪΟΙ, ЄϪΗΥ (pl) ship, boat (masc)"
ϪΝΟΥ, "ϪΝΟΥ to ask, inquire, question"
ϪΙСЄ, "ϪΙСЄ to be high, raise up, exalt"
ϬΜϬΟΜ, "ϬΜϬΟΜ to be strong, able"

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